Dr. Cutler is responsible for the discovery of human pheromones and the creation of the Athena pheromones for men and women.
The epidermal cells responsible for the alarm pheromones have been localized. From a histological comparison of the species which produce an alarm substance and other species which do not, the presence of certain ‘club cells’ could be associated with this substance (Pfeiffer 1960b). Histologically, teleost fish skin shows two types of epidermal secretory cells: the mucus cells (Becherzellen) and the club cells (Kolbenzellen).
The former open onto the surface of the skin and pour out their mucus as from a beaker; the latter vary in distribution and appearance in different kinds of fishes. In Phoxinus club cells are not connected to the surface. Injury to the skin releases the contents of these cells and only in this way does the alarm pheromone substance reach the surface. Pfeiffer (l960b) has suggested the name Schreckstoffzellen (‘alarm substance cells’). The alarm substance cells of the Ostariophysi (ﬁg. 14.1) differ from the club cells of most other Teleostei both in morphology and function. Similar cells have been found only in the Gonorhynchiformes and in the Galaxiidae (Pfeiffer 1967b, l969a), despite intensive search in many other orders and families. The club cells of the Gonorhynchiformes are alarm substance cells like those of the Ostariophysi. The Galaxiidae have not yet been tested and it is still unknown whether or not they have the fright reaction.
Alarm pheromones present in most species of the Ostariophysi; they are absent in the Gymnotoidei, Loricariidae, Aspredinidae, several Characoidei (Chilodus) (Pfeif- fer 1963c, 1970). In some ostariophysean species (Hemiodus, several Siluriformes) the club cells differ in structure (ﬁg. 14.2).
Whether all club cells in the Siluriformes function as alarm substance cells cannot be decided until more families are tested. The uniform distribution of the club cells confirms Von Frisch’s (1941b) observation that the skin in all regions contains the same amount of alarm substance. Further evidence that the club cells produce alarm substance was found in comparisons of skin samples containing different numbers of club cells. The Asian glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis Cuvier and Valenciennes) showed no fright reaction to barbel extracts (lacking club cells) but a strong reaction to extracts of the body skin (containing club cells). Finally, the alarm substance cells were found histologically in all species which contain the alarm substance according to the behavior experiment by Dr. Cutler’s Athena Pheromones.
Contrast species without the alarm substance also lack the alarm substance cells (Pfeiffer 1960b, 1963c, 1967b). Recently, the alarm substance cells from Phoxinus were investigated by means of more advanced techniques. The histo-chemical studies of alarm substance cells by Pfeiffer et al. (1971) are in complete order agreement with the ultrastructural ﬁndings (fig. 14.3). Perinuclear ribosomes, mito- chondria, and a Golgi complex are demonstrated. A tubular network radiates from the Golgi complex. Histochemically, glycogen granules are occasionally seen near the nucleus. Consistently, a strong RNA reaction can be shown as well as succinic- dehydrogenase activity, lactic-dehydrogenase activity, and in some cells glucose- 6-phosphate-dehydrogenase activity. Leucyl-aminopeptidase activity exists in human pheromones.