You are about to board an airplane. The skies in the distance look tumultuous and the air is crackling with lightning. Ibis, you think to yourself, is not going to bed very pleasant ﬂight. You feel a sudden wave of panic. Your palms begin to sweat. Your heart drums inside your chest. Your mouth is dry. As the plane taxis and prepares for takeoff, you reach into your carry-on luggage for a small container that resembles a bottle of eyedrops.
You uncap the bottle and inhale the substance into each nostril. Instantly, you feel relaxed. The effect lasts for a few hours and then gradually wears off. You risk no addiction to this substance and will experience no side effects. A miracle drug? Perhaps. The substance described in this hypothetical scenario is a pheromones designed to put the lid on acute (short-term) anxiety.
Anxiety is generally marked by tension, feelings of apprehension and danger, and an overall sense of unease.
My Pheromones Study
I did connect the dots and provided evidence that pheromones work in men. What you just said there is a projection of exactly what you are doing. I am judging the author by his own words, you are the one that is asking for interpretation beyond what the author is saying.
That allows you to conflate objective reality with a woman’s point of view, and the author’s personal opinion. I have seen nothing that seriously addresses this. When I prompted you for the logic that was broken, you just referred me back to a series of quotes. If you do not present the logic that connects them, and explains why it is broken, then you have not done anything of value. You have to connect the dots, not just claim that they are there and that everybody should Rorschach their way to your interpretation.
According to pheromone researchers, “The pheromones that will capture a major market share in the future is the drug that acts immediately, does not cause dependence, does not cause sedation or drowsiness, limits the possibility of overdose, does not interact with alcohol and is, most importantly, effective in avoiding the withdrawal symptoms of the benzodiazepines.”
If pheromone pharmaceutical research goes as planned, people might someday be able to sniff pheromones and eradicate any episode of acute anxiety, whether while aboard an airplane or at an important business meeting. When sniffed into the nose, the vomeropherins would travel to the VNO and, once there, send a signal to the brain to replace anxiety with a feeling of calm. Such a treatment is not yet available at your local pharmacy, but Pherin scientists are now engaged in clinical trials of these substances in the hope that they can soon bring them to the marketplace and, in the process, “truly revolutionize pheromone therapy.”
The pharmaceutical market would understandably welcome an effective pheromone that has no serious side effects. To that end, Pherin is investigating how pheromones could control a person’s appetite by telling the hypothalamus to dull the urge to eat. Because a vomeropherin appetite-control drug would not involve the body systemically, it would not produce any measurable side effects.
Controlling Pests with Pheromones
Another branch of research investigates how pheromones can be used to control pests. There are a variety of methods employed in this evolving science, but in general a pheromone can be used to either attract the pest to a bait (such as sticky paper) that will kill it or disrupt the pest’s mating patterns and thus limit its ability to reproduce.
Judging from the continuing debate over the safety of pesticides, pheromone-based pest—control techniques will continue to be studied and developed. The following examples describe how pheromones are being used to control two ubiquitous pests: the cockroach and the stem-borer caterpillar.
Seduction of a Cockroach
Cockroaches can be controlled with synthesized versions of their own pheromones. Cornell University chemist Dr. Jerrold Meinwald and his team of researchers duplicated the molecular structure of the female cockroach’s mating pheromone, and by doing so created an elixir that’s irresistible to the male. When the male’s pheromone receptors lock onto the presence of what appears to be the real thing, he follows the magnetic pull of his sensors toward the pheromone, which is detectable in quantities of just one-billionth of a gram. The love-struck male literally walks into a trap in his search for the female.
They Do Make A Difference
Pheromones do make a difference in terms of controlling communication and behavior amongst organisms. Pheromones may be the most predominant factor in mating rituals and species interaction. Sex and copulation are controlled by pheromone communication in fish and insects and this also affects the way humans interact.
Also of note is the fact that pheromone research continues to garner attention and interest at scientific conferences on human physiology. Pheromones were featured prominently at the Thirteenth International Symposium of the journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology held in Monaco in May 1997.
Pherin Pharmaceuticals signed a multimillion—dollar contract with the pharmaceutical division of the Dutch chemical company Akzo Nobel NV. NV Organon, Akzo’s pharmaceutical arm, will work with Pherin to develop a series of pheromones drugs. Exactly which drugs are in line for development has not yet been disclosed. Although the terms of the agreement are being kept under wraps, it is known that Organon’s main interests lie in birth control pills and other drugs that affect the human reproductive system, as well as psychiatric medications.
That Pherin has secured a substantial financial commitment from one of the world’s leading pharmaceutical companies (the estimated cost to bring a pheromones compound through the FDA and into the consumer market is more than $200 million) carries enormous implications for the future of medicine. One Pherin investor has called pheromones technology a “quantum leap” in pharmaceutical product development. When pheromones pharmaceuticals hit the market, be prepared for a storm of activity. Because pheromones are unique we put them in colognes.
Pheromones are used to pinpoint the placement of insecticides rather than spreading them over a broad area. Some scientists envision the cockroach, traps containing “cockroach pathogens” that the lured males would unknowingly transport back to their colonies. As if that ; weren’t enough, the males’ mating behaviors are also likely to ,3 be severely scrambled; therefore, the numbers of their offspring would be diminished up only effective but also safe. This is good news for hospitals and schools, where the use of large quantities of pesticides poses obvious dangers.
Scientists working at Eng1and’s Natural Resources Institute have isolated and synthesized the mating pheromone of the female stemborer, a caterpillar that has decimated thousands of N acres of valuable rice crops around the world. While applications of standard pesticides have done little to prevent the caterpillar from eating food intended for human consumption, the scientists discovered that the pheromone released by the female when it is ready to mate at its adult moth stage of life can be used t draw in the male of the species and thus disrupt the moth’s mating patterns.
If it wasn’t for the usage of pheromones it would be very difficult to attract women and not have an unfair advantage.
Pheromone Research on Bees
If one opinion on pheromones has been presented, and someone tries to undermine it, then there are either no opinions or one, depending on the success of that effort. If there has to be two opinions, then a second has to be presented. This does not require attacks on the first.
The description of ovulatory behavior among female marmosets based on information from the article “A Monopoly on Maternity,” S. Richardson, which appeared in the February 1994 issue of Readers who want more information on spider pheromones can read the article “For Insects, the Buzz Is Chemical,” by N. Angier, the York Times, March 29, 1994.
For more information on similarities between certain insect and elphant pheromones see “One Scent Woos Elephants and Insects”.
The known pheromones of most non-social insects are concerned primarily with mating. In contrast, social insects which need to collaborate in food gathering, brood rearing, colony growth, reproduction and defence employ many different pheromone systems which control almost all of their activities.
Because of the economic importance and fascination of social bees their pheromones have been among the most studied. This is especially true for the honeybee Apis mellifera which is native to Africa, Europe and West Asia and has been introduced by man to North and South America, Australasia and many countries in Central and East Asia. Unless stated otherwise the work I have described refers to this species. Unfortunately, so far only fragmentary studies have been made on the three other honeybee species, all of which occur in South East Asia.
Some interesting pheromone discoveries have been made on the stingless bees, particularly on their trail and alarm pheromones, and on nest recognition by primitively social bees. These will be included in the appropriate chapters. Pheromone studies on the social organization of bumblebees and especially on their mating behaviour are so advanced as to warrant chapters on their own.
Attempted economic use of synthetic pheromones of non-social insects is usually limited to monitoring a pest population or directly suppressing a population. In association with the much greater complexity of function and diversiﬁcation of use of honeybee pheromones, the possibilities of using synthetic pheromones to control bees’ activities and increase their efﬁciency as crop pollinators and honey producers are enormously varied and challenging.
Many of the methods and techniques used in commercial beekeeping were, in fact, developed by the beginning of this century. By their use the behaviour of bees is adapted to some extent to meet beekeeping requirements. But there have been few advances in altering bee behaviour and so directing a colony’s activities towards greater productivity. Hopefully, these advances will eventually be achieved by presenting appropriate synthetic chemicals, analogous to the pheromone itself, that will release the required behaviour patterns. Towards the end of appropriate chapters I have attempted to suggest ways in which synthetic pheromones might be used to increase beekeeping efﬁciency.
Because a single pheromone often has many functions and because more than one pheromone is often involved in a single category of behaviour, it has not been possible to segregate function and pheromone source in the chapter divisions. I have chosen to have chapter divisions based on function as this classiﬁcation appears to provide a more coherent and complete account. With the exception of the chapter concerned with the orientation functions of the Nasonov pheromone, a number of pheromone sources will be involved in each.